- 2.2Antiquity and classical era:
- 2.1Birth of Islam and the Middle Ages:
- 2.2Early modern sultanates:
- 2.2.1Isaaq Sultanate
- 2.2.1Battle of Berbera
- 2.3British Somaliland:
- 2.4State of Somaliland (Independence):
- 2.1Somali Republic (union with Somalia):
- 2.2Somali National Movement, Barre persecution:
- 2.1Restoration of sovereignty (end of the unity with Somalia):
- 2.22001 constitutional referendum:
- 6Flag of Somaliland:
Somaliland’s climate is a mixture of wet and dry conditions. The northern part of the region is hilly, and in many places the altitude ranges between 900 and 2,100 metres (3,000 and 6,900 ft) above sea level. The Awdal, Sahil and Maroodi Jeex (Woqooyi Galbeed) regions are fertile and mountainous, while Togdheer is mostly semi-desert with little fertile greenery around. The Awdal region is also known for its offshore islands, coral reefs and mangroves.
Geographic map of Somaliland
A scrub-covered, semi-desert plain referred as the Guban lies parallel to the Gulf of Aden littoral. With a width of twelve kilometres (7.5 miles) in the west to as little as two kilometres (1.2 miles) in the east, the plain is bisected by watercourses that are essentially beds of dry sand except during the rainy seasons. When the rains arrive, the Guban’s low bushes and grass clumps transform into lush vegetation.
Cal Madow is a mountain range in the eastern part of the country. Extending from the northwest of Erigavo to several kilometers west of the city of Bosaso in neighboring Somalia, it features Somaliland’s highest peak, Shimbiris, which sits at an elevation of about 2,416 metres (7,927 ft). The rugged east–west ranges of the Karkaar Mountains also lie to the interior of the Gulf of Aden littoral. In the central regions, the northern mountain ranges give way to shallow plateaus and typically dry watercourses that are referred to locally as the Ogo. The Ogo’s western plateau, in turn, gradually merges into the Haud, an important grazing area for livestock.
Somaliland has the fourth lowest GDP in the world, and there are huge socio-economic challenges for Somaliland, with an unemployment rate between 60 and 70% among youth, if not higher. According to ILO, illiteracy exists up to 70% in several areas of Somaliland, especially among females and the elder population.
Since Somaliland is unrecognized, international donors have found it difficult to provide aid. As a result, the government relies mainly upon tax receipts and remittances from the large Somali diaspora, which contribute immensely to Somaliland’s economy. Remittances come to Somaliland through money transfer companies, the largest of which is Dahabshiil, one of the few Somali money transfer companies that conform to modern money-transfer regulations. The World Bank estimates that remittances worth approximately US$1 billion reach Somalia annually from émigrés working in the Gulf states, Europe and the United States. Analysts say that Dahabshiil may handle around two-thirds of that figure and as much as half of it reaches Somaliland alone.
Since the late 1990s, service provisions have significantly improved through limited government provisions and contributions from non-governmental organizations, religious groups, the international community (especially the diaspora), and the growing private sector. Local and municipal governments have been developing key public service provisions such as water in Hargeisa and education, electricity, and security in Berbera. In 2009, the Banque pour le Commerce et l’Industrie – Mer Rouge (BCIMR), based in Djibouti, opened a branch in Hargeisa and became the first bank in the country since the 1990 collapse of the Commercial and Savings Bank of Somalia. In 2014, Dahabshil Bank International became the region’s first commercial bank. In 2017 Premier Bank from Mogadishu opened a branch in Hargeisa.
Bus services operate in Hargeisa, Burao, Gabiley, Berbera and Borama. There are also road transportation services between the major towns and adjacent villages, which are operated by different types of vehicles. Among these are taxis, four-wheel drives, minibuses and light goods vehicles (LGV).