- 2.1Prehistoric Sudan (before c. 800 BC):
- 2.2Kingdom of Kush (c. 1070 BC–350 AD):
- 2.3Medieval Christian Nubian Kingdoms (c. 350–1500):
- 2.1Islamic Kingdoms of Sennar and Darfur (c. 1500–1821):
- 2.1Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan (1821–1899):
- 2.1Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956):
- 2.1Independence (1956–present):
- 2.1.1Bashir government (1989–2019):
- 2.1.1Partition and Rehabilitation:
- 2.1.22019 Sudanese Revolution and Transitional Government of Hamdok:
- 6Flag of Sudan:
From the late 11th/12th century, Makuria’s capital Dongola was in decline, and Alodia’s capital declined in the 12th century as well. In the 14th and 15th centuries Bedouin tribes overran most of Sudan, migrating to the Butana, the Gezira, Kordofan and Darfur. In 1365 a civil war forced the Makurian court to flee to Gebel Adda in Lower Nubia, while Dongola was destroyed and left to the Arabs. Afterwards Makuria continued to exist only as a petty kingdom. After the prosperous reign of king Joel (fl. 1463–1484) Makuria collapsed. Coastal areas from southern Sudan up to the port city of Suakin was succeeded by the Adal Sultanate in the fifteenth century. To the south, the kingdom of Alodia fell to either the Arabs, commanded by tribal leader Abdallah Jamma, or the Funj, an African people originating from the south.
Islamic Kingdoms of Sennar and Darfur (c. 1500–1821):
Soon the Funj came in conflict with the Ottomans, who had occupied Suakin around 1526 and eventually pushed south along the Nile, reaching the third Nile cataract area in 1583/1584. A subsequent Ottoman attempt to capture Dongola was repelled by the Funj in 1585. Afterwards, Hannik, located just south of the third cataract, would mark the border between the two states. The aftermath of the Ottoman invasion saw the attempted usurpation of Ajib, a minor king of northern Nubia. While the Funj eventually killed him in 1611/1612 his successors, the Abdallab, were granted to govern everything north of the confluence of Blue and White Niles with considerable autonomy.