The national flag of Ireland (Irish: bratach na hÉireann), frequently referred to in Ireland as ‘the tricolour’ (an trídhathach) and elsewhere as the Irish tricolour, is the national flag and ensign of the Republic of Ireland. The flag itself is a vertical tricolour of green (at the hoist), white and orange. The proportions of the flag are 1:2 (that is to say, flown horizontally, the flag is half as high as it is wide).
Iceland’s first national flag was a white cross on a deep blue background. It was first shown in parade in 1897. The modern flag dates from 1915, when a red cross was inserted into the white cross of the original flag. This cross represents Christianity. It was adopted and became the national flag when Iceland gained independence from Denmark in 1918. For the Icelandic people the flag’s coloring represents a vision of their country’s landscape. The colors stand for 3 of the elements that make up the island. Red is the fire produced by the island’s volcanoes, white recalls the ice and snow that covers Iceland, and blue is for the mountains of the island.
The national flag of Guinea-Bissau was adopted in 1973 when independence from Portugal was proclaimed.
Like the former flag of Cape Verde, the flag is based on that of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). It is still the dominant party in Guinea-Bissau. The PAIGC party flag was derived from that of Ghana, which was the first design to use the Pan-African combination of red, yellow, green, and black in 1957.
The flag features the traditional Pan-African colors of gold, green, red, and also the Black Star of Africa. The flag’s design is heavily influenced by the flag of Ghana. The colors have the same meanings: specifically, the red is for the blood of martyrs, green for forests, and gold for mineral wealth.
The national flag of Guinea was adopted on 10 November 1958.
The colors of the flag were adapted from those of the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, the dominant movement at the time of independence. The colors were in turn derived from those of the flag of Ghana, which had first adopted them in 1957. Sékou Touré, the first President of Guinea, was a close associate of Kwame Nkrumah, the former president of Ghana.
Red symbolizes the blood of the martyrs who died from slavery and wars, yellow represents the sun and the riches of the country, and green the country’s vegetation. In keeping with other flags in the region, the Pan-African movement’s colors of red, yellow, and green are used.
The flag of Guatemala, often referred to as “Pabellón Nacional” (literally, “National Flag”) or “Azul y Blanco” (“Blue and White”) features two colors: Sky blue and white. The two Sky blue stripes represent the fact that Guatemala is a land located between two oceans, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean sea); and the sky over the country (see Guatemala’s national anthem). The white signifies peace and purity. The blue and white colors, like those of several other countries in the region, are based on the flag of the former Federal Republic of Central America.
The national flag of Grenada was adopted upon independence from the United Kingdom, 7 February 1974. The flag was designed by Anthony C. George of Soubise in Saint Andrew Parish. The civil ensign is the same, except for a 1:2 rather than 3:5 ratio. The naval ensign is based on the British White Ensign, with this flag in the canton.
The six stars in the red border represent the country’s six parishes, with the middle star, encircled by a red disk, representing Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The symbol in the hoist represents a clove of nutmeg, one of the principal crops of Grenada. It also represents a link to Grenada’s former name, which was the “Isle of Spice”. The red colour of the flag stands for courage and vitality, gold for wisdom and warmth, and green for vegetation and agriculture.
The national flag of Ghana was designed and adopted in 1957 and was flown until 1962. It was then reinstated in 1966. It consists of the Pan-African colours of red, gold, and green, in horizontal stripes, with a black five-pointed star in the centre of the gold stripe. The Ghanaian flag was the second African flag after the flag of the Ethiopian Empire to feature these colours. The flag’s design influenced that of the flag of Guinea-Bissau (1973). The flag of Ghana was designed by Theodosia Okoh (1922–2015).
The colors of the flag carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The blue alludes to the Gambia River, which is the nation’s key feature and is where the country derives its name from. The red evokes the sun – given the Gambia’s close proximity to the Equator – as well as the savanna, while the thin white stripes represent “unity and peace”. The green epitomizes the forest and the agricultural goods that the Gambian people are heavily dependent on, both for exports and their personal use.
The colours and symbols of the flag carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The yellow alludes to the Equator – which cuts across the country – and also symbolizes the sun. The green epitomizes the natural resources of Gabon, as well as its “extensive forested area” that the Gabonese people are economically dependent on in the form of lumber. The blue represents the sea, specifically the South Atlantic Ocean along which the country has an “extensive coast”.
The flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is officially the flag of France, as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is a self-governing overseas collectivity of France.
In 1982 an unofficial local flag was designed, based on the Collectivity’s coat of arms. The flag is blue with a yellow ship, said to be Grande Hermine, which brought Jacques Cartier to Saint-Pierre on 15 June 1536. Three square fields placed along the hoist recall the origin of most inhabitants of the islands, from top to bottom, Basques, Bretons, and Normans. The flag was likely designed by André Paturel, a local business owner.