North America

Honduras

The national flag of Honduras was adopted on March 7, 1866, based on the flag of the Federal Republic of Central America. In 1823 Honduras joined the United Provinces of Central America and adopted their flag. In 1866 it was amended; five cerulean stars were placed in the center to represent the five original Central American provinces. The colors and pattern are the same as the flag of the United Provinces of Central America.

Haiti

The flag of Haiti is a bicolour flag featuring two horizontal bands coloured blue and red, defaced by a white panel bearing the coat of arms. The coat of arms depicts a trophy of weapons atop a green hill and a royal palm symbolizing independence. The palm is topped by the Cap of Liberty. The motto L’Union fait la Force (“Unity makes strength”) appears on a white ribbon below the arrangement. The flag of Haiti—along with those of Afghanistan, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Ecuador, and El Salvador—is one of six national flags whose designs incorporate a depiction of the flag itself.

Guatemala

The flag of Guatemala, often referred to as “Pabellón Nacional” (literally, “National Flag”) or “Azul y Blanco” (“Blue and White”) features two colors: Sky blue and white. The two Sky blue stripes represent the fact that Guatemala is a land located between two oceans, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean sea); and the sky over the country (see Guatemala’s national anthem). The white signifies peace and purity. The blue and white colors, like those of several other countries in the region, are based on the flag of the former Federal Republic of Central America.

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is officially the flag of France, as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is a self-governing overseas collectivity of France.

In 1982 an unofficial local flag was designed, based on the Collectivity’s coat of arms. The flag is blue with a yellow ship, said to be Grande Hermine, which brought Jacques Cartier to Saint-Pierre on 15 June 1536. Three square fields placed along the hoist recall the origin of most inhabitants of the islands, from top to bottom, Basques, Bretons, and Normans. The flag was likely designed by André Paturel, a local business owner.

Saint Barthélemy

The flag of Saint Barthélemy is the French tricolor. This is because Saint Barthélemy is a self-governing overseas collectivity of France. An unofficial flag of Saint Barthélemy consisting of the island’s coat of arms centered on a white field is also used on the island.

The coat of arms of Saint-Barthélemy is a shield divided into three horizontal stripes (parted per fess), three gold fleurs-de-lis on blue, above a white Maltese cross on red, over three gold crowns on blue, and “Ouanalao” is what the indigenous people called the island. On top of the shield is a mural crown.

The fleurs-de-lis, Maltese Cross, and gold crowns are heraldic reminders of the island’s history as a colony ruled by first the Kingdom of France, then the Knights Hospitaller and in turn the Kingdom of Sweden.

Martinique

The unofficial “snake flag” (drapeau aux serpents) features a white cross on a blue field with a white snake in each quarter. These are fer-de-lance vipers (Bothrops lanceolatus, French trigonocéphale) native to Martinique. It was used by the French military on their buildings and/or uniforms. Members of the National Gendarmerie bore the coat-of-arms version of the flag. It stood next to the French flag on some public buildings of the island—such as the prefecture and the police station of Fort-de-France.

El Salvador

The flag of El Salvador features a horizontal triband of cobalt blue-white-cobalt blue, with the coat of arms centered and entirely contained within the central white stripe. This design of a triband of blue-white-blue is commonly used among Central American countries.

The colors signify:

Cobalt blue: represents the great sky and two massive oceans of Central America.
White: represents peace, concordia and solidarity with the world
Golden Amber: represents the entire bold phraseology in the flag, the coat of arms of El Salvador; the bold equilateral triangle, 5 indigenous spears, beaming solar rays, scroll, the bold motto (God Union Liberty) and the bold etymology (Republic of El Salvador in Central America)

Dominican Republic

As described by Article 21 of the Dominican Constitution, the flag features a centered white cross that extends to the edges and divides the flag into four rectangles; the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue. The national coat of arms, featuring a shield with the flag design and supported by a bay laurel branch (left) and a palm frond (right), is at the center of the cross. Above the shield, a blue ribbon displays the national motto Dios, Patria, Libertad (English: God, Fatherland, Liberty). Below the shield, the words República Dominicana appear on a red ribbon (this red ribbon is depicted in more recent versions as having its tips pointing upward). In the center of the shield, flanked by three spears (two of them holding Dominican banners) on each side, is a Bible with a small cross above it and said to be opened to the Gospel of John, chapter 8, verse 32, which reads Y la verdad os hará libres (And the truth shall make you free).

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