- 2.1Early History:
- 2.1Golden Age of Kyiv:
- 2.1Foreign Domination:
- 2.1Cossack Hetmanate:
- 2.119th Century, World War I and Revolution:
- 2.1Western Ukraine, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina:
- 2.2Inter-war Soviet Ukraine
- 2.1World War II
- 2.1Post–World War II
- 2.1Orange Revolution:
- 2.2Euromaidan and 2014 revolution
- 2.1Civil unrest, Russian intervention, and annexation of Crimea:
- 6Flag of Ukraine:
The short-lived Act Zluky (Unification Act) was an agreement signed on 22 January 1919 by the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the West Ukrainian People’s Republic on the St. Sophia Square in Kyiv. This led to civil war, and an anarchist movement called the Black Army (later renamed to The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) developed in Southern Ukraine under the command of the anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War. They protected the operation of “free soviets” and libertarian communes in the Free Territory, an attempt to form a stateless anarchist society from 1918 to 1921 during the Ukrainian Revolution, fighting both the tsarist White Army under Denikin and later the Red Army under Trotsky, before being defeated by the latter in August 1921.
Poland defeated Western Ukraine in the Polish-Ukrainian War, but failed against the Bolsheviks in an offensive against Kyiv. According to the Peace of Riga, western Ukraine was incorporated into Poland, which in turn recognized the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919. With establishment of the Soviet power, Ukraine lost half of its territory, while Moldavian autonomy was established on the left bank of the Dniester River. Ukraine became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in December 1922.