- 1United States Minor Possessions - Pacific Ocean:
- 1.1Baker Island
- 1.1.1Flora and Fauna:
- 1.1.1National Wildlife Refuge:
- 1.1.2Ruins and Artifacts:
- 1.2Howland Island
- 1.2.1Flora and Fauna:
- 126.96.36.199Prehistoric Settlement:
- 188.8.131.52Sightings By Whalers:
- 184.108.40.206U.S. Possession and Guano Mining:
- 220.127.116.11Itascatown 1935–1942:
- 18.104.22.168Kamakaiwi Field:
- 22.214.171.124Japanese Attacks During World War II:
- 126.96.36.199National Wildlife Refuge:
- 1.2.1Earhart Light :
- 1.3Jarvis Island
- 1.3.2Geography and Ecology:
- 188.8.131.52Nineteenth Century Guano Mining:
- 184.108.40.206Millersville (1935–1942):
- 220.127.116.11International Geophysical Year:
- 18.104.22.168National Wildlife Refuge:
- 1.4Kingman Reef
- 1.4.1Political Status:
- 1.4.1National Wildlife Refuge:
- 1.4.2Amateur Radio Expeditions:
However, above sea level, the reef is usually barren of macro-organisms. Mainly constructed of dead and dried coral skeletons, providing only calcite as a source of nutrients, the small and narrow strips of dry land are only habitable by a handful of species for short periods of time. Most flora which begin to grow above water — primarily coconut palms — die out quickly due to the fierce tides and lack of resources necessary to sustain plant life.
National Wildlife Refuge:
On September 1, 2000, the Navy relinquished its control over Kingman Reef to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. On January 18, 2001 Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt created the Kingman Reef National Wildlife Refuge during his final days in office with Secretary’s Order 3223. It is composed of the emergent coral rubble spits and all waters out to 12 nautical miles. While there are only 3 acres of land, 483,754 acres of water area is included in the Refuge. Along with six other islands, the reef was administered as part of the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex. In January 2009, that entity was upgraded to the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument by President George W. Bush.
Amateur Radio Expeditions:
Since the early 1940s, Kingman Reef has had very little human contact, though amateur radio operators from around the world have occasionally visited the reef to put it “on the air” in what is known as a DX-pedition. In 1974, a group of amateurs using the call sign KP6KR sailed to the reef and set up a temporary radio station and antenna. Other groups visited the island in subsequent years, including 1977, 1980, 1981, 1988 and 1993.
Most recently, a group of 15 amateur radio operators from the Palmyra DX Group visited the reef in October 2000. Using the FCC-issued special event call sign K5K, the group made more than 80,000 individual contacts with amateurs around the world over a period of 10 days.