- 2.2Antiquity and classical era:
- 2.1Birth of Islam and the Middle Ages:
- 2.2Early modern sultanates:
- 2.2.1Isaaq Sultanate
- 2.2.1Battle of Berbera
- 2.3British Somaliland:
- 2.4State of Somaliland (Independence):
- 2.1Somali Republic (union with Somalia):
- 2.2Somali National Movement, Barre persecution:
- 2.1Restoration of sovereignty (end of the unity with Somalia):
- 2.22001 constitutional referendum:
- 6Flag of Somaliland:
For centuries, Indian merchants brought large quantities of cinnamon to Somalia and Arabia from Ceylon and the Spice Islands. The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said to have been the best-kept secret of Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world; the Romans and Greeks believed the source to have been the Somali peninsula. The collusive agreement among Somali and Arab traders inflated the price of Indian and Chinese cinnamon in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe and made the cinnamon trade a very profitable revenue generator, especially for the Somali merchants through whose hands large quantities were shipped across sea and land routes.
In 2007, more rock art sites with Sabaean and Himyarite writings in and around Hargeysa region were found, but some were bulldozed by developers.
Birth of Islam and the Middle Ages:
Various Somali Muslim kingdoms were established around this period in the area. In the 14th century, the Zeila-based Adal Sultanate battled the forces of the Ethiopian emperor Amda Seyon I. The Ottoman Empire later occupied Berbera and environs in the 1500s. Muhammad Ali, Pasha of Egypt, subsequently established a foothold in the area between 1821 and 1841.