history

Panama 1

Panama

The flag of Panama was made by María de la Ossa de Amador and was officially adopted by the “ley 48 de 1925”. The Panamanian flag day is celebrated on November 4, one day after Panamanian separation from Colombia, and is one of a series of holidays celebrated in November known as the Fiestas Patrias.

The first flag proposed in 1903 consisted of thirteen horizontal stripes of alternating red and yellow, with a blue canton containing two golden suns, joined by a narrow line to depict the oceans to be united by the Panama Canal. However, this was not accepted by the Panamanian leader, Manuel Amador Guerrero, whose family designed a new flag.

The stars and quarters are said to stand for the rival political parties, and the white is said to stand for the peace in which they operate. Blue was the color of the Conservatives and red was the color of the Liberals.

Palau 2

Palau

The explanation for the choice of colors is rooted in the history and customs of the Palauan people. The light blue of the field symbolizes the Pacific Ocean, and also represents the transition from foreign domination to self-government. The golden disk, which sits slightly off-center toward the hoist, represents the full moon. The Palauans consider the full moon to be the optimum time for human activity. At this time of the month, celebrations, fishing, sowing, harvesting, tree-felling, and the carving of traditional canoes are carried out. The moon is a symbol of peace, love, and tranquility.

Pakistan 3

Pakistan

The National Flag of Pakistan was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August 1947, three days before the country’s independence, when it was adopted by the All-India Muslim League as the official flag-to-be of the Dominion of Pakistan. The flag was retained upon the establishment of a constitution in 1956, and remains in use as the national flag for the present-day Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The flag is made up of a green field with a tilted white crescent moon and five-pointed star at its centre, and a vertical white stripe at its hoist-end.

The green represents the Muslim majority in Pakistan and the white stripe represents the various religious minorities. The crescent represents progress and the five-pointed star represents light and knowledge. The flag symbolises Pakistan’s commitment to Islam and the rights of religious minorities.

Oman 4

Oman

Until 1975, Oman used the plain red banner of the indigenous people. In 1970, the Sultan introduced a complete new set of national flags. Bands of green and white were added to the fly, and the national emblem, the badge of the Albusaidi Dynasty, was placed in the canton. This depicts crossed swords over a khanjar, a traditional curved dagger. White has been associated historically with the Imam, the religious leader of Oman, and at times the political rival to the ruling Sultan. It also symbolizes peace. Green is traditionally associated with the Jabal al-Akdar, or “Green Mountains,” which lie toward the north of the country. Red is a common color in Gulf state flags. The national emblem is said to date back to the 18th century. A curved dagger is fastened over a pair of crossed swords. An ornate horsebit links the weapons.

Norway 5

Norway

His eventual choice a few days later of a Nordic cross was clearly based on the tradition established by the other Nordic countries, Denmark and Sweden. This cross represents Christianity. The red and blue colours also explicitly referred to the same two countries, former and present union partners. It was clearly understood by all who took part in the flag discussions locally, in the press or in parliament what those colours denoted. A predominantly red flag had many adherents among those who were attached to the union with Denmark or to its flag, which for centuries had also been that of Norway. Others, who saw Denmark as an oppressor, favoured the blue colour associated with the new Swedish dynasty which was seen as more receptive of Norwegian ambitions of autonomy. Consequently, most of the other flag proposals on the agenda had either red or blue as the predominant colour, depending on the political preferences of the proposers.

Nigeria 6

Nigeria

The flag is an adaptation of the winning entry from Michael Taiwo Akinkunmi in a competition held in 1959. Akinkunmi was a 23-year-old student at the time he designed the flag. He was studying at Norwood Technical College in London, England, when he saw an advertisement in a newspaper that submissions were being accepted for the design of a new national flag of Nigeria. The original submission had a red radiating sun badge in the central white vertical band with a green vertical band on each side. After the badge was removed by the judges, the flag has remained unchanged. It was first officially used on 1 October 1960, the day Nigeria was granted independence from the United Kingdom.

Niger 7

Niger

A number of sources have described the symbolic intent of the flag, although official sources have yet to make comment on the validity of any of the aforementioned sources. A common interpretation is that the upper orange band represents the northern regions of the Sahara Desert (though this is sometimes said to be the Sahel), the center white band represents purity (though this is sometimes said to be the Niger River) and also represents the French-descended small white minority, and the lower green band represents both hope and the fertile regions of southern Niger. The orange circle in the center band is said to represent the sun or independence.

Nicaragua 8

Nicaragua

The two Azure bands on the flag and the arms of Nicaragua in use today are the most similar to those used by the United Provinces of Central America. The triangle, volcanoes, rising sun, Cap of Liberty, and rainbow all appeared on the original emblem. The coat of arms used today contains the name of the state, Republica de Nicaragua, whereas in 1823 the title was Provincias Unidas del Centro de America. The decision to revert to the emblems used by the United Provinces of Central America was taken in 1908 and reflected Nicaragua’s aspirations for the rebirth of the political entity formed by the 5 nations. Except for the text around the arms, the flag is very similar to that of the United Provinces of Central America. The 5 volcanoes represent the original 5 member states, the Cap of Liberty represents national freedom, and the rays of the sun and the rainbow are symbolic of the bright future to come.

Tokelau 9

Tokelau

In June 2007 the regional parliament (General Fono) decided over the future flag, anthem and national symbol of Tokelau. The proposed flag depicted a stylized Polynesian canoe and four stars. The stars represent the three main islands and also Swains Island, administered by the United States (American Samoa) but claimed by Tokelau. As the required supermajority was not reached in the 2007 self-determination referendum, the flag was not officially adopted.

Niue 10

Niue

The symbolism represented by the flag is described in the Act. The Union Jack symbolises the protection granted by the United Kingdom in 1900 after petitioning by the Kings and Chiefs of Niue. The yellow field symbolizes “the bright sunshine of Niue and the warm feelings of the Niuean people towards New Zealand and her people.” The association with New Zealand, which took over responsibility and administration of Niue in 1901, is also represented by the four small stars that depict the Southern Cross. Finally, the blue disc containing a larger star represents the deep blue sea surrounding the self-governing island of Niue.

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