- 2.1Ancient Lebanon:
- 2.2Maronites, Druze, and the Crusades:
- 2.1Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate:
- 2.1Independence from France:
- 2.1Civil War and Occupation:
- 2.2Instability and Syrian War Spillover:
- 2.12019–2020 Crisis:
- 5.1Flag of Lebanon:
The main national airport is the Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport and is located in the southern suburbs.
The Lebanese rail system is not currently in use, with services having ceased due to the country’s political difficulties.
Flag of Lebanon:
The flag of Lebanon is formed of two horizontal red stripes enveloping a horizontal white stripe. The white stripe is twice the height ( width ) of the red ones (ratio 1:2:1). The green cedar (Lebanon Cedar) in the middle touches each of the red stripes and its width is one third of the width of the flag.
The presence and position of the Cedar in the middle of the flag is directly inspired by the mountains of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani). The Cedar is a symbol of holiness, eternity and peace. As an emblem of longevity, the cedar of Lebanon has its origin in many biblical references.
The cedar of Lebanon is mentioned seventy-seven times in the Bible, especially in the book Psalms chapter 92 verse 13 where it says that “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree, He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon” and Chapter 104, verse 16, where it is stated: “[t]he trees of the Lord are well watered, the cedars of Lebanon that he planted”.
Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869), marveling at the cedars of Lebanon during his trip to the Orient with his daughter Julia, had these words: “[t]he cedars of Lebanon are the relics of centuries and nature, the most famous natural landmarks in the universe. They know the history of the earth, better than the story itself”.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (1900-1944), who loved the cedars and also had visited Lebanon in 1935, wrote in his work Citadel “[t]he peace is a long growing tree. We need, as the cedar, to rock its unity”.
In 1920, in a text of the proclamation of the State of Greater Lebanon, it was said: “[a]n evergreen cedar is like a young nation despite a cruel past. Although oppressed, never conquered, the cedar is its rallying. By the union, it will break all attacks”.
The white color on the flag represents the snow as a symbol of purity and peace.
The two red stripes refer to the Lebanese blood shed to preserve the country against the successive invaders.