- 2.1Early History:
- 2.1Golden Age of Kyiv:
- 2.1Foreign Domination:
- 2.1Cossack Hetmanate:
- 2.119th Century, World War I and Revolution:
- 2.1Western Ukraine, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina:
- 2.2Inter-war Soviet Ukraine
- 2.1World War II
- 2.1Post–World War II
- 2.1Orange Revolution:
- 2.2Euromaidan and 2014 revolution
- 2.1Civil unrest, Russian intervention, and annexation of Crimea:
- 6Flag of Ukraine:
Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras, Olbia, and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea. These colonies thrived well into the sixth century AD. The Goths stayed in the area, but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the seventh century AD, the territory that is now eastern Ukraine was the center of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
In the fifth and sixth centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of what is now Ukraine. The Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Severians, Polans, Drevlyans, Dulebes, Ulichians, and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many South Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Ilmen lakes, led to the emergence of the Ilmen Slavs, Krivichs, and Radimichs, the groups ancestral to the Russians. After an Avar raid in 602 and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning of the second millennium.
Golden Age of Kyiv:
Kievan Rus’ was founded in the territory of the Polans, who lived among the rivers Ros, Rosava, and Dnieper. Russian historian Boris Rybakov came from studying the linguistics of Russian chronicles to the conclusion that the Polans union of clans of the mid-Dnieper region called itself by the name of one of its clans, “Ros”, that joined the union and was known at least since the 6th century far beyond the Slavic world. The origin of the Kyiv princedom is of a big debate and there exist at least three versions depending on interpretations of the chronicles. In general it is believed that Kievan Rus’ included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, the far eastern strip of Poland and the western part of present-day Russia. According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus’ elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.
During the 10th and 11th centuries, it became the largest and most powerful state in Europe. It laid the foundation for the national identity of Ukrainians and Russians. Kyiv, the capital of modern Ukraine, became the most important city of the Rus’. In 12th–13th centuries on efforts of Yuri the Long Armed, in area of Zalesye were founded several cities similar in name as in Kievan Rus’ such as Vladimir on the Klyazma/Vladimir of Zalesye (Volodymyr), Galich of Merya (Halych), Pereslavl of Zalesye (Pereyaslav of Ruthenian), Pereslavl of Erzya.
The Golden Age of Kievan Rus’ began with the reign of Vladimir the Great (980–1015), who turned Rus’ toward Byzantine Christianity. During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kievan Rus’ reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power. The state soon fragmented as the relative importance of regional powers rose again. After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kievan Rus’ finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav’s death.